Artes expresivas en la capacitación de docentes para la educación inclusiva: realidad portuguesa

Graça Duarte Santos, Marília Castro Cid, Alexandra Carvalho

Resumen


La Educación Inclusiva afirma la creación de igualdad de oportunidades para todos los niños. Para que esto suceda, es importante que los maestros, trabajando en aulas regulares, promuevan el potencial de los niños y que tiegan acceso a métodos y técnicas que les permitan desarrollar actividades educativas inclusivas. La creatividad, el aprendizaje cooperativo y el aprendizaje activo son métodos fundamentales para una Educación Inclusiva.

Este documento se centra en una investigación centrada en el análisis de programas de formación de docentes de pre-servicio para la Educación Inclusiva y cómo estos futuros profesionales podrían estar preparados para usar Técnicas Expresivas como métodos activos privilegiados en la Educación Inclusiva. El estudio incluyó el universo de todas las instituciones de educación superior que ofrecen formación docente previa al servicio en Portugal desde la educación preescolar hasta el segundo ciclo de educación básica. Utilizando un método descriptivo de investigación, todos los datos fueron recolectados, analizados y categorizados en componentes dentro de la Educación Inclusiva y las Técnicas Expresivas. Los resultados muestran que las instituciones de educación superior tienen un gran porcentaje de componentes de capacitación en Educación Inclusiva y Técnicas Expresivas, más altas en instituciones públicas que en instituciones privadas. La mayoría de ellos tiene un componente teórico y práctico. Sin embargo, los resultados indican que ambos componentes no están cubiertos por un solo curso, es decir, Técnicas Expresivas en Educación Inclusiva.

El estudio llama la atención sobre un área fundamental: una Capacitación Inicial de Maestros consistente que vincula la educación en Técnicas Expresivas, Educación para Necesidades Especiales y Educación Inclusiva. Aunque no es exhaustivo, este estudio puede ser una contribución para promover la reflexión y el desarrollo de programas efectivos de capacitación de docentes antes del servicio, dando un aporte con estas áreas para construir modelos positivos de Educación Inclusiva.


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24310/IJNE1.1.2018.4913

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