La vigilancia como función cognitiva clave en la relación entre el ejercicio físico puntual y la cognición

Francisco Tomás González-Fernández

Resumen


En las últimas dos décadas han surgido numerosas investigaciones que han mostrado los efectos beneficiosos de la actividad física para la salud (Biddle, Fox y Boutcher, 2003; Lee y Skerritt, 2001). Lejos de creer que la actividad física tan sólo prevenía trastornos físicos [e.g., enfermedades cardiovasculares (Haskell et al., 2007)], la literatura científica argumenta que también previene trastornos mentales [e.g., depresión y reducción del estrés (Dunn et al., 2001) o ansiedad (Paluska y Schwenk, 2000)]. Además, entidades de relevancia mundial tales como la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), el Centro para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC), el Colegio Americano de Medicina del Deporte (ACSM) o la Asociación Americana del Corazón (AHA), relacionan positivamente la actividad física con la salud general y consideran a la actividad física como algo esencial e indispensable para preservar la salud. En resumen, el presente trabajo tiene como objetivo principal estudiar los efectos del ejercicio físico puntual sobre el funcionamiento cognitivo (vigilancia y percepción), sugieren que el esfuerzo ligero-moderado aumenta la activación general y mejora la velocidad de respuesta en tareas de atención sostenida con independencia de la relevancia del estímulo objetivo. Además, no replicamos el resultado de investigaciones previas que demostraron el efecto de un entrenamiento físico en el rendimiento cognitivo


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Palabras clave


atención sostenida, ejercicio físico puntual, cognición

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24310/riccafd.2019.v8i1.5762

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